用微信扫码,手机上答题
微信扫码,添加客服

居民身份证“进化史”:一张卡片证明“我就是我”

中等

高中二年级

传统文化

国家与文化

身份证是现在人们出行办事必不可少的东西,夸张一些说,没有身份证寸步难行。但身份证是什么时候出现的?在身份证之前人们是用什么来证明自己身份的?
In 350 BCE, China’s earliest identity certificate (known as 照身帖) only included a hand-carved portrait. It was invented by the scholar Shang Yang and issued by the Qin government in the Warring States period (475 – 221 BCE). It was a flat bamboo board with the holder’s name, occupation, portrait, and official seal carved on it. Everyone needed one to pass checkpoints on the road or check into guesthouses.
公元前350年,中国最早的身份证明只包括一幅手工雕刻的肖像。它是由商鞅发明的,由战国时期的秦国政府发行。它是一块扁平的竹板,上面刻着持有者的姓名、职业、肖像和官印。每个人都需要一张来通过路上的检查站或入住宾馆。
In the Tang dynasty (618 – 907), the small metal fish tally was divided into left and right halves that fit together. One half was left with the imperial court; while the official carried the right half — putting them together could prove their identity. In the Ming dynasty (1368 – 1644), a similar system saw officials identify themselves with a small plate of animal bone or ivory (known as a 牙牌) hung at their waist.
在唐代,鱼符被分成左右两半。一半留给了朝廷;而这名官员则带着右边的一半——把它们放在一起可以证明他们的身份。在明朝,一个类似的制度是官员在腰上挂一个动物骨头或象牙来表明自己的身份。
When China began market reforms in 1978, people gained more freedom to move around. But traveling on trains , staying in hotels, or moving job locations meant presenting one’s hukou and an official letter from an employer, making it inconvenient and inefficient for workers to migrate. The first generation of ID cards introduced in 1984 was partly meant to make the labor market more flexible and people’s lives more convenient. The following year they became mandatory (强制性的) for all over the age of 16.
当中国在1978年开始市场改革时,人们获得了更多的流动自由。但是,乘坐火车出行、住酒店或搬迁工作地点都需要提供户口和雇主的正式信函,这给工人的流动带来了不便和低效率。1984年推出的第一代身份证在一定程度上是为了使劳动力市场更灵活,人们的生活更方便。第二年,所有16岁以上的人都必须办理身份证。
By 1988, the cards were being printed rather than hand-written. But they remained easy to counterfeit (伪造). In 1999, a teacher surnamed Wang was hit with a 2,000-yuan phone bill despite not owning a phone. In 2001, a Beijing resident surnamed Liang said she had received letters from telecommunications companies after someone used her lost ID card to buy 30 mobile phones.
到1988年,身份证开始打印而不是手写。但它们仍然很容易伪造。1999年,一位姓王的老师在没有手机的情况下收到了2000元的话费账单。2001年,一位姓梁的北京居民说,有人用她丢失的身份证购买了30部手机,她收到了电信公司的来函。
From the 1990s, efforts began to make ID cards, now essential for everyday life and containing sensitive information, more secure. Since 1999, each citizen has been assigned a unique 18-digit citizen number to go with their card. In 2004, the government launched the second generation of ID cards including digital anti-fraud measures. To fight identity theft, the ID card system began recording fingerprint information in 2013.
从20世纪90年代开始,人们开始努力使身份证变得更加安全。身份证现在是日常生活的必需品,包含敏感信息。自1999年以来,每个公民都被分配了一个唯一的18位数字的公民号码,与他们的身份证一起使用。2004年,政府推出了第二代身份证,其中包括数字反欺诈措施。为了打击身份盗窃,身份证系统从2013年开始记录指纹信息。
剩余段落暂不支持预览,下载文章即可阅读全文,有任何疑问请您联系客服【18011429143】微信同号。

1 . What was used to prove officials’ identity in 620?

A.

A flat bamboo board.

B.

A fish-shaped tally.

C.

A hand-carved portrait.

D.

A small plate of ivory.

2 . What was one of the purposes of introducing the first generation of ID cards?

A.

To ensure teenagers’ security.

B.

To reduce people’s moving around.

C.

To make people rely more on public transport.

D.

To make it convenient for employees to migrate.

3 . With the examples in Para 4, the writer intends to show that _____________.

A.

millions of ID cards were lost or stolen each year

B.

so many modern services required identification in China

C.

crime involving fake or stolen ID cards became worryingly common

D.

so much of modern Chinese life is digital and integrated with people’s ID

4 . The text is mainly organized in order of ____________.

A.

effectiveness

B.

complexity

C.

importance

D.

time

  • 同年级时文
  • 同难度时文
  • 同文体时文
  • 同话题时文
  • 同题型时文
“全力以赴,迎接期末”——你有一份期末考试提示,请查收!
容易
说明文
学校生活
“全力以赴,迎接期末”——你有一份期末考试提示,请查收!
调查:24%的英国成年人不会骑自行车
中等
说明文
其他
调查:24%的英国成年人不会骑自行车
永冻层渐融危机:北极圈村庄面临坍塌
中等
说明文
世界与环境
永冻层渐融危机:北极圈村庄面临坍塌
男童患罕见病 母亲心碎陪医
容易
记叙文
个人情况
男童患罕见病 母亲心碎陪医
告别朝九晚五,英语老师追寻心之所向
高中一年级
记叙文
个人情况
告别朝九晚五,英语老师追寻心之所向
忘记朋友的伤害,铭记朋友的关爱(完形填空)
初中三年级
记叙文
人际关系
忘记朋友的伤害,铭记朋友的关爱(完形填空)
百万磅土豆面临浪费 公益组织帮助扭转局势
初中三年级
记叙文
社会
百万磅土豆面临浪费 公益组织帮助扭转局势
博大精深的中华文化 经典古老的成语世界
高中一年级
中等
国家与文化
博大精深的中华文化 经典古老的成语世界
天不生仲尼,万古如长夜!
高中一年级
中等
个人情况
天不生仲尼,万古如长夜!
听成语故事:马马虎虎
初中二年级
中等
国家与文化
听成语故事:马马虎虎
警惕!你可能会触犯这些中国民间禁忌
初中三年级
中等
国家与文化
警惕!你可能会触犯这些中国民间禁忌
博大精深的中华文化 经典古老的成语世界
高中一年级
中等
传统文化
博大精深的中华文化 经典古老的成语世界
听成语故事:马马虎虎
初中二年级
中等
传统文化
听成语故事:马马虎虎
警惕!你可能会触犯这些中国民间禁忌
初中三年级
中等
传统文化
警惕!你可能会触犯这些中国民间禁忌
当非洲热情遇上中国功夫:科特迪瓦青年的东方情结
高中二年级
中等
记叙文
当非洲热情遇上中国功夫:科特迪瓦青年的东方情结
猫咪的大脑越来越小?“铲屎官”竟是始作俑者
初中二年级
较难
说明文
动物
猫咪的大脑越来越小?“铲屎官”竟是始作俑者
“全力以赴,迎接期末”——你有一份期末考试提示,请查收!
高中二年级
容易
说明文
学校生活
“全力以赴,迎接期末”——你有一份期末考试提示,请查收!
新朋友杨光遇见爱丽丝的爱宠!
四年级
容易
应用文
动物
新朋友杨光遇见爱丽丝的爱宠!