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“心流状态”下的大脑活动 助你提升创造力

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高中三年级

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通过分析即兴爵士乐手的脑电波,研究人员现了解了大脑是如何达到创造性心流状态的。这些发现对任何想进入“心流状态”以产生创意想法的人——不仅仅是音乐家——都有实际意义。
Flow, commonly called being in the zone, is where a person is totally engaged in performing an activity, up to the point where they are hardly self-conscious or conscious of their surroundings. What is flow from the perspective of brain functioning? One theory about it is that years of practicing a task causes the brain to develop a specialized network that produces specific ideas — for example, musical ideas — with little conscious effort.
心流,通常被称为“进入状态”,是指一个人完全投入到一项活动中,直到他们几乎没有自我意识或几乎意识不到周围的环境状况。从大脑功能的角度来看,什么是心流?一种理论认为,多年的实践会使大脑发展出一个专门的网络,产生特定的想法,例如音乐想法,而几乎不需要有意识的努力。
The researchers studied 32 jazz guitarists, some highly experienced and other less so, recording high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs)(脑电图) of brain activity while they improvised (即兴演奏) to six jazz songs, accompanied by drums, bass and piano. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of their flow experience for each improvisation or “take”. Each take was also judged by four jazz experts individually to objectively find out the participants’ expertise.
研究人员研究了32名爵士吉他手,其中一些经验丰富,另一些经验不足,在他们即兴演奏六首爵士歌曲时,记录了大脑活动的高密度脑电图,并配以鼓、贝斯和钢琴。参与者被要求对他们每次即兴创作或“采取”的流畅体验的强度进行评分。每一次表演都由四位爵士乐专家单独评判,以客观地了解参与者的专业知识。
Based on the participants’ ratings, the researchers found that the highly experienced musicians experienced flow more often and more intensely than musicians with low experience. When they analyzed the EEGs to see what brain regions were associated with high- and low-flow takes, they found that a high-flow state was associated with increased activity in left-sided brain areas associated with listening to and playing music. Importantly, in a high-flow state, activity decreased in frontal areas associated with conscious control or letting go.
根据参与者的评分,研究人员发现,经验丰富的音乐家比经验不足的音乐家更频繁、更强烈地体验到心流。当他们分析脑电图以了解哪些大脑区域与高流量和低流量摄入相关时,他们发现高流量状态与左侧大脑区域与听和播放音乐相关的活动增加有关。重要的是,在高流量状态下,与意识控制或放手相关的额叶区域的活动减少。
Overall, the findings supported the “expertise-plus-release of control” hypothesis (假说) of creative flow, which has practical effects for those wanting to enter the flow state. “This study is concerned with musicians, but the findings extend to anyone wanting to be creative. If you want to be able to stream ideas fluently, then keep working on those musical scales, physics problems or whatever else you want to do creatively — computer coding, fiction writing — you name it,” said John Kounios, a corresponding author of the study. “But then, try letting go. As jazz great Charlie Parker said, ‘You’ve got to learn your instrument. Then, you practice, practice, practice. And then, when you finally get up there on the bandstand, forget all that and just sing.’”
总的来说,这些发现支持了创意心流状态的“专业知识+释放控制”假说,这对那些想要进入心流状态的人有实际效果。该研究的通讯作者John Kounios说:“这项研究关注的是音乐家,但研究结果也适用于任何想要发挥创造力的人。如果你想流畅地表达想法,那么就继续研究那些音阶、物理问题或你想创造性地做的任何事情——计算机编码、小说写作——等等。”。“但接下来,试着放手。正如爵士乐大师查理·帕克所说,‘你必须学会你的乐器。然后,你练习,练习,练习。然后,当你最终站到乐队看台上时,忘记所有这些,只唱歌。’”
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1 . Why does the author raise the question in Paragraph 1?

A.

To pursue an answer.

B.

To introduce the topic.

C.

To raise his puzzle.

D.

To share his interest.

2 . What does Paragraph 2 mainly talk about?

A.

The result of the research.

B.

The function of EEGs.

C.

The way the research was conducted.

D.

The aspects the discovery can be applied to.

3 . What does John Kounios stress in his explanation in the last paragraph?

A.

Entering the flow state takes lots of practice.

B.

Not many supported the hypothesis of creative flow.

C.

Musicians benefit more from the findings.

D.

Charlie Parker often made mistakes in his performance.

4 . What can be learned from the text?

A.

Flow happens when we’re not conscious.

B.

Musicians tell us how to stream ideas fluently.

C.

The mystery of brain functioning has been uncovered.

D.

We really are unconscious when we’re “in the zone”.

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